FARMING IN SANGAM LITERATURE WITH KARANTHURAI

Introduction:
Sangam period is considered to be the best form of Tamil language. Most of
the genius work of Tamil Literature were not highlighted due to the Non-availability of scirpts in any written format. Ancient people tried to convert their signal way of expression into letters in accordance with the usage. And they tried to draw the picture the place where they lived.
The Sangam literature covers the two groups, which is called as Naturalistic
and Ethical concepts. Pathupattu and Ettuthogai gives the importance to Naturalistic way of Sangam Literature. The Eighteen Didactic works like Kural and Naladiyar are the formation of Sangam Literature with Ethical concepts.
The word Sangam had existed without proper approval from the literary wing.
The stress for writing scripts from the workers point of view was not functioning ever since from the Sangam age period. Grammar works derived from Tholkappium along with Kalithogai and Agattium. The period of Sangam with the literary scholars from the ancient records is to ascertained with the availability of Palm-leaf scripts, the year in which it was palm-leaflets along with the rulers in that period. It is believed that
sangam literature period by analysing with the facts of poems written in leaflets with the rulers of the country was more than 9900 years ago.

Words usage
The literary works of Sangam literature was propounded with Agam (Love)
and Puram (External). The Agam concept of description was in with our body expression. The Puram concept of expression was explained with our external existences at the time of Sangam literature.
In Tamil, the language we call the term as ‘Mozhi ‘. The Mozhi express from
our Mouth, we call all noun forms as ‘Ezhuvai ‘. Since all words are pronouncing from our mouth with the rising of our upper jaw, In Tamil Grammar, we also call all noun forms as ‘Ezhuvai’. The same way all our actions, we also call it in Tamil as ‘Payanilai ‘.The term Payanilai expresses in Tamil grammar as the status of our actions, for verbs.
The pattern of usage of Tamil language along with the grammatical
usages was mingled with our products what we used in that period. The Object is expressed in Tamil as ‘ Seyapaduporul’ . The Tamil language expression is peculiar with the natural existences of our body movements.
The word ‘ karanthurai pa ‘ is having the meaning of extraction from the first letters of the same word. These karanthurai pa is explained with some particulars at the conclusion of this writing for continuing to maintain in tamil literature, as practised in Sangam literature.
In the world, It is estimated that the farming activities was believed to be
started in 12,000 years ago, which was pointed by the Historian Professor Yual Noah Harari.

By comparing with the Palm-leaf scripts which was available the details of
Sangam Literature is also somewhere between 9900 years ago.
The farming activities was the only activities which was developed in the
Land. Tholkappiyam written by Tholkappier was also described the various
agricultural aspects.

Agriculture
Agriculture was the main occupation of the Tamil region during those days.
The importance of Agricultural was well recognized from Megalithic period.
Archaeological evidences was found in Adichinallur
Thiruvalluvar was also quoted in Thirukural with the terms of plough and
farmers(ulavar).
‘Truly lived person are those who plough and eat, the others would follow and eat what the farmers give’
The Eco system as delineated in the sangam literature in distinct language for the land classification is known as ‘Thinai ‘. The land classification in those days were grouped as Mullai with forest, Kurunji with Hills, Marudham with cultivated lands and Neithal with coastal areas.
The seasons for farming activities was also classified by the farmers during
the sangam period in accordance with the Climatic situation of Tamilnadu. The seasons of climatic situation is also termed as spring, Late Spring, Cloudy, Rainy, Early Winter and Late Winter.
The importance of irrigation was well recognized with the anthology from the ‘ Purananuru ’. In Puranananuru, the anthology was addressed by the Pandiyan Ruler, Nedunchelian by the poet ‘ Kudipulaviyanar’. The food was obtained with the places where the plenty of water in the long reservoirs.

A river side measures to bring the good water supply.
There was a steady progress in the Reclamation of forest and waste land was brought under the ploughing conditions. The south Indian Chola ruler was the pioneer to do the task of Reclamation of land. In the Northern region called thondamandalam in Tamilnadu was deforested and the evidence was quoted in Pattinapalai by Uthiravan Kannanar.

Paddy
Plough and Plough ware was used since Neolithic times. Polished stone walls were used 5000 years ago. Marutham was the pet name in the Cauvery belt areas which was considered to be a fertile land during the sangam period, In kurunthokai poem quotation mentions as ‘the Millets was stalked with clusters’. Paddy (nel) was the main cultivation in the Marutham Land areas. Nel was classified into various categories sennel, podunel, vennel etc.,
The farmers were interested in furrowing and tilling their fields, sowing of
seed, weeding, reaping and sowing of seed, and storing the grains and straw were the regular action in the agricultural field. Such incidence was quoted in the painting of the walls and it was also found in the stone hill areas.
Ridging and hedging was used in the wetland for identification and
segregation, as of now, it was not clearly earmarked.
Sugarcane cultivation was also made in several ways.
Vegetables
In front of every house hold, the Vegetables such as Peerkai (Sponge Gourd),
noted in Purananuru, poem No.116 and Natrinai poem No. 197, 277, 326,
Surai(Bottle Gourd), Pagal(Bitter Melon), in the Purananuru poem No.399, were grown in and stated in various Sangam period poems.

Water:
Normally, rain waters were the main feed for cultivation. In some areas, flood waters were flowed in the forest streams with rocks, carrying drying leaves and cluster of flower buds, the happenings of such incidences was quoted in Natrinai No. 53 & 292. Small pools in the hills are called Cunai. They are said to be preserve water from the fresh showers of early winter so as to be useful for the animals to drink throughout the year and water in these pools is mentioned as crystal clear, which is called in Palingu thanneer in Tamil.
In addition to the tanks and ponds, deep sunk wells, called in Tamil as Kinaru were also utilized for the purpose of Irrigation.
In the Maduraikkanji 80-83, we get a glimpse of the different modes or types of water lifting devices employed in irrigation.
It is also stated in the Madurakkanji 89-92, palm-leaf baskets was kept for water logging in the paddy fields. In Silapathikaram also, the term eda was used for palm leaf baskets and pila was used for a basket made of metal for drawing water.
Poets :
Various poets expresses the different fields experience in the poems.
Mutuvanar expresses his interest in all the regions with the pictures. Of the sea coast scenery, his painting of scenery of Punnai trees with cool shades heaped upon moon light is a lively picture. He describes the Tinai field along with parrots coming in a flock seeking the tinai ears, streams, jumping and playing on bamboos as if on swings and resting with their mates on the Venkai trees.
A young calf of the wild cow is terrified by the sound of the hunters, and
leaving its group it runs away to the village nearby and is brought up by the village boys and becomes tamed.
Another poetess name Okkur macattiyar has two stanzas on the forest region and its appropriate season, the early winter. In the stanza 324 of Akananuru she reveals her keenness of observation through all the senses except that of taste. The heroine expresses her feelings to her lady-companion saying that the season laughs at her disappointment and anxiety for her lover who has not yet returned as promised; and she sees it laughing with its teeth in the fresh buds of her Mullai creeper.
Auvaiyar:
Auvaiyar’s poems are on all regions though there are many on mountains and one or two on sea coast. She expresses the beauty of high sky and mountain heights. The sun is a planet of great lustre passing through the sky. She observes and describes lightening during the rainy season suddenly illuminating the mountain tops and the clefts therein.
Those are certain incidents which depicts the farming fields along with the
poetic expression on the nature living.

Stock-rearing animals:
Oxen’s and buffaloes were reared for agricultural operations and cow, goat
and sheep were the main domesticated animals. Cattle naturally was considered not only holy but also as the measure of property.
The wealth of the individual was assessed with the possession of cattle along with the agricultural operational fields. Shepherds, goat herder, cowherds, cattle herders were common to the agricultural as well as the pastoral tracts.

Conclusion :
Agriculture was the main occupation in the period of sangam literature. The Chera, Chola and Pandiya were the main rulers in the region of Tamilnadu. The fertile agricultural tracts (mempulam) with the river valleys were the main reasons for their living standards in the sangam period. The words which is giving importance to any language should have meaningful formation in design. In such case, The Acrostic pattern in English and Karanthurai in Tamil would be helpful with meaningful sentences making for the usage of our understanding in actions.
In 398 of Natrinai of sangam period also, karanthurai word was used for
having the implicit meaning of life. The meaning of karanthurai in tamil is used to have by arranging with first letter for the same word.
The explanation for the word is given below:
The ‘word’ i​n ​Acrostic pattern for English
W – Writing
O – Of
R – Regulated
D – Designs
The writing of Regulated Design is used for any language in detail with
Acrostic pattern.
In the same pattern, the tamil word ‘ thakuthi’ can explain in Karanthurai.
Tha – Tharam
Ku – Kunam
Th i- Thiramai.
These three letters of the tamil is having meaningful for the word ‘ thakuthi ‘in karanthurai with ‘ tharam ‘, ‘ kunam ’, ‘ thiramai ‘ .
These karanthurai pa which was used in sangam literature, is not in practice for the sake of clarity in words meaning. In The farming method also, we can adopt such ‘ karanthurai pa ‘ in our tamil literature also.
By
Thangavelu C
Seyal Mantram/Pathivalar

Author: THANGAVELU CHINNASAMY

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